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Gerunds and Infinitives

 

 

Atmak to throw aht-mahk Kırmak to break; kır-mahk
Ayrılmak to part ahy-rıl-mahk Kırılmak to snap  
Bağırmak to cry, to shout bahğır-mahk Uçmak to fly. ooch-mahk
Yırtmak to tear yırt-mahk Yırtılmak to be torn  
Birleşmek to unite beerlash-make      
Bitmek to finish beet-make satış sale sah-tısh
düşünmek to think dewshewn-mak sevinmek To rejoice saveen-make
Daire Circle, ring dahr-ray kimse Nobody, Somebody keem-say
kopmak to break off cohp-mahk      
İtmek to push eet-make Koymak to put coy-mahk
İp string eep Duymak to hear dooy-mahk
Koklamak to smell cok-lah-mahk      
Sarhoş intoxicated, drunk sahr-hosh      

 

 

 

The GERUNDS and INFINITIVES

1. "-en" or "-an"


"-en" or "-an" is added to the stem (turning into "-yen" or "-yan" when the latter ends in vowel).

 

 
Girmek to enter giren that enters
Giren adam kimdir? Who is the man that comes in?
 
Uçmak to fly Uçan that flies
Uçan daire Flying saucer
Söylemek to tell söyleyen that says
Yalan söyleyen çocuk The boy that lies
okumak to read okuyan that reads
Kitabı okuyan öğretmen The teacher that reads the book
 
 

 

 

 

2.  "-erek" or "-arak"
"-erek" or "-arak" is added to the stem, turning into "-yerek" or "-yarak" when the latter ends in a vowel.

 

 
koşmak to run koşarak running
koşarak geldi He came running
İtmek to push iterek pushing
iterek kapıyı açtık We opened the door by pushing
Birleşmek to unite birleşerek uniting
Birleşerek işi başardık We have been successful in the matter by uniting
Ağlamak to cry ağlayarak crying
Çocuk ağlayarak uyudu The child fell asleep while crying
 
 
 
 
Note. With "olarak", participle of the verb "olmak", locutions are obtained
ilk olarak first of all Son kez olarak for the last time
Özel olarak especially Samimi olarak sincerely
İlişik olarak enclosed Genel olarak in general,generally
Ek olarak in addition, moreover    
 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Repetition of the form

The stem is repeated after having added an "-e" or "-a".

 
Koşmak to run koşa koşa Running ( with warmth)
Koşa koşa geldiler They came hurriedly
Sevmek to love seve seve gladly, with pleasure
Seve seve kabul ettim I accepted gladly
Bilmek to know bile bile knowing, purposely
Bile bile yalan söyledi He lied knowingly
Sormak to ask sora sora Asking repeatedly
Sora sora yolumuzu bulduk We found way by asking repeatedly

 

 


4. "-ken"

The suffix "-ken" (always invariable) is added to the 3 rd person singular of the general present tense.
 

 

Koşmak to run koşarken in the act of running
Koşarken düştüm I fell while running
Bağlamak to tie bağlarken fastening
Bağlarken ip koptu The string break off hile fastaning
Çalışmak to work çalışırken working
Çalışırken sigara içmem I don't smoke while working.
Koymak to put koyarken putting
Şişe dolaba koyarken kırıldı. The bottle broke to pieces while putting it in the cupboard.

 

 

5.  "-ince"

"-ince" (or "-ınca, -ünce, -unca") is added to the stem ; when the latter ends in a vowel "-yince (or -yınca, -yünce, -yunca") is added.

 

Düşünmek to think düşünce thinking
Bu işi düşününce sinirleniyorum When I think of this matter, I become nervous
Bulmak to find bulunca finding
Sizi evde bulunca sevindim I was glad to find (finding) you at home.
Yıkamak to wash yıkayınca washing
Gömleği yıkayınca yırtıldı. While washing it, the shirt was torn
Bağırmak to shout bağırınca shouting
Ona bağırınca beni duydu. Having shouted at him, he heard me.

 

6. "-ip"


"-ip" (or "-ıp, -üp, "up") is added to the stem of the first verb and the conjunction "ve" (and drops, this suffix turns into "-yip" (or "-yıp, -yüp, -yup") whenever the stem ends in a vowel. The two verbs should have the same tense and the same person.

 

Instead of saying :   One says:
Gördü ve anladı He saw and he understood Görüp anladı.
Düştü ve kalktı He fell and he rose Düşüp kalktı.
  He smelled the flower and threw it Çiçeği koklayıp attı.
  I sold the goods and collected the money Malı satıp parayı aldım
  He opened the book and began to read Kitabı açıp okumağa başladı

 

 

 

7.Form meaning " as soon as"

It is formed by the 3 rd person singular of the general present tense (see 17 th lesson) followed by its negative form.

 

Görmek to see Seni görür görmez kaçtı. He run away as soon as he saw you.
İçmek to drink Şarap içer içmez, sarhoş olur. As soon as he drinkswine, he gets intoxicated.
Bitmek to finish işim biter bitmez sinemaya gideceğim. As soon as I finish my job, I shall go to the cinema.
Almak to take Sizden haber alır almaz geleceğim. I shall come as soon as I hear from you.
Demek to say Bunu der demez, kalkıp gitti. He went away as soon as he said that.

 

 

8. "-meden" (or "-madan") ; "-sizin" (or "-sızın")
 
 
Görmek to see Beni görmeden ayrılmayınız. Do not leave before seeing me.
Cevap vermek to answer Cevap vermeksizin odadan çıktı. He left the room without any answer.
 
 
a) "-meden" (or "-madan") is added to the stem.
b) "-sizin" (or "-sızın") is added to the infinitive.
 
 
Sormak to take Bana sormadan, satış yapmayınız. Do not make any sale without asking me
Almak to take Bilet almakzınız sinemaya giremeyiz. We cannot get in cinema without buying tickets
Yemek to eat    
içmek to drink Yemeden içmeden çalışamayız Don't study without eating and drinking)
Açmak to open Pencereyi açmaksınız hava alınmaz. We cannot have air without opening the window.