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Personal Pronouns

 

 

The personal pronouns are:

 

ben I benn
biz we beez
sen you senn
siz you seez
o he,she,it oh
onlar they ohn-lahr

 

deli crazy day-ly Şişman fat sheesh-mahn
Nazik Nice, kind nah-zeek hayır no hah-yır
Fakir poor fah-keer kolay easy coh-lie
Neşeli merry nah-shay-ly kötü bad,wicked kö-tew
hasta ill,sick hass-tah yaşlı old,aged yahsh-lı
Pek very payk Yorgun tired yohr-goon
evet yes ay-vate Yüksek high yew-sayk
Mutlu happy moot-loo Zeki clever zay-ky
değil is not day-yeel Zengin rich zenn-guin

 

  

 

Personal pronouns in Turkish can be grouped like this:

 

 

NOMINATIVE ben sen o biz siz onlar
ACCUSATIVE beni seni onu bizi sizi onları
GENETIVE benim senin onun bizim sizin onların
DATIVE bana sana ona bize size onlara
LOCATIVE bende sende onda bizde sizde onlarda
ABLATIVE benden senden ondan bizden sizden onlardan

 

 

 

Yorgunum. I am tired. Yohr-goon-oom.
Gençsiniz. You are young. Guench-seeneez.
Hastadır. He ( she ) is ill. Hass-tah-dır.

 

 

 

 

It is to be noted that for the present tense of the verb "to be", the Turkish language has the following suffixes (which of course obey the rule of euophony)

 

1st person singular -im   1st person plural -iz
2nd person singular -sin   2nd person plural -siniz
3rd person singular -dir   3rd person plural -dirler

 

 

When the adjective ends in a vowel, the suffixes of the 1st person singular and plural become respectively "-yim" and "-yiz".

You will notice that the personal pronoun can be omitted.
 

 


 

Mutluyum. I am happy. Güzelsiniz. You are pretty.
İyisiniz. You are good. Zekidirler. They are clever.
Kötüdür. He (she) is wicked. Pek şişmansınız. You are very fat.
Kolaydır. It is easy. Pek naziksiniz. You are very nice.
Neşeliyiz. We are merry. Paul pek hastadır. Paul is very ill.
 
 

 

 

 

To obtain the negative form, the above-mentioned suffixes must be used with the adverb "değil" (is not), forming thus a locution which has not to obey the rule of euphony since it is never joined to another word.

 

Genç değilim. I am not young. Deli değildir. We are not crazy.
Hasta değilsiniz. You are not ill. Zengin değildir. We are not rich.
Kör değildir. He ( she ) is not blind. Pek nazik değilsiniz. You are not very nice.
Yüksek değildir. It is not high. Pek zeki değildirler. Pek zeki değildirler.

 

To obtain the interrogative tense, one has to put "mi" (or "mı, mü, mu" according to euphony) before the above-mentioned suffixes without joining to the adjective.

 

 

Zengin miyim? Am I rich? Hayır,arkadaşım yaşlı değildir. No,my friend is not old.
Hasta mısınız? Are you ill? Evet,arkadaşım gençtir. Yes, my friend is young.
Genç midir? Is he (she) young? Paul mutlu mudur? Is Paul happy.
Kolay mıdır? Is it easy? Evet, Paul mutludur. Yes,Paul is happy.
Zeki miyiz? Are we clever? Hayır,mutlu değildir. No, he is not happy.
Deli misiniz? Are you crazy?    
Arkadaşınız yaşlı mıdır? Is your friend old?    
 

 

 

 

Exercise 5. - Put the following sentences into Turkish.

 

I am young.
I am not old.
You are clever. (2nd person singular)
You are not crazy. (2nd person singular)
He is good.
He is not wicked.
We are very rich.
We are not very poor.
Am I happy.
No, I am not happy.
Are you crazy? (2nd person plural)
No, I am not crazy.