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Unit Two

 

Geçmiş zamanı ifade etmek için, fiil cümlelerinde yüklemi past hale çevirmek gerekir. Past hali v2 olarak ifade ediyoruz. Çoğu fiil, sonuna "-ed" takısı eklenerek past hale çevrilebilir. Bunlara ingilizce dilbilgisinde "düzenli fiiller" yani "regular verbs" deriz.
He worked for that company for fourteen years.
We stayed at home last night.
The car crashed into a dog.
The game ended at half past six yesterday.
 
Bazı fiiller ise "irregular" yani düzensizdir. Düzensiz fiillerin past halleri ile ilgili herhangi bir kural yoktur. Aşağıda, tabloda en sık kullanılan bazı düzensiz filleri listeledik. Bunları örnekler ile kullanarak pekiştirmeliyiz. Bir süre sonra, size de çok kolay gelmeye başlayacaklarına eminim.

 

 

v1
v2
v1
v2
Come
build
cut
fall
go
see
write
sell
sleep
take
understand
win
wear
say
teach
read
Came
built
cut
fell
went
saw
left
wrote
sold
slept
took
understood
won
wore
said
taught
read
Find
catch
do
drive
have
make
meet
run
sit
speak
tell
buy
stand
eat
give
hear
know
think
Found
caught
did
drove
had
made
met
ran
sat
spoke
told
bought
stood
ate
gave
heard
knew
thought

My uncle won the lottery last year.
I bought some ice cream for my little brother.
I went to a movie yesterday.
The guy took some money, and ran away.
I met a famous actor two weeks ago.
I did all my homework before dinner so now, I'm watching tv.

Olumsuz hal ve soru hali için, "do" yardımcı fiilini past hali ile "did" olarak kullanacağız. "did", bütün şahıslar için kullanılır. Yardımcı fiil kullanıldıktan sonra, yüklemin yalın halde kullanılması gerektiğini de unutmayalım. Yani, eğer cümleyi olumsuz veya soru cümlesi yapmak için "did" eklersek, yüklemi yine v1 olarak kullanmalıyız; varsa "-ed" takısını da çıkaracağız.
Atakan didn'tstudy for the test.
You didn'teat a lot of food tonight.
They didn'ttalk to each other last week.
He didn't listen to the teacher.
 
Did you see the game last night?
Did everyone do their exercises?
How did you go to school yesterday?
What did you see on the table?
 
-What did you do after school last night?
-I rested for an hour. Then I played with my friends in the garden. At 6 o'clock, we had dinner. Then I did my homework. I went to bed at half past ten last night.
 
-Did the man like his new house?
-Yes, he did.        veya        Yes, he liked his new house.
 
-Did the cat catch the mouse?
-No it didn't         veya        No, it didn't catch the mouse.

 

 

 

 

"anybody, anything, somebody,  something, somewhere, anywhere"
Bu sözcüklere belgesiz zamirler deriz. Bu ifadeler kesin, ayırt edici bilgi vermeden, tanıtmadan isimlere işaret ederler.
The children always want something.
I see something in the sky!
Your teacher talks to somebody in the street everyday.
 
There is somebody in the bathroom but there isn't anybody in the living room.
The box is empty. There isn't anything in the box.
 
The suitcase is heavy. There is something in the suitcase.
 
-Do you have anything in your pocket?
-Yes, I have a little, red ball in my pocket.
 
-I can't find my book anywhere. Did you see my book?
-Yes I saw it somewhere but I can't remember.
 
-There are twenty students in this class now. There were twenty one students yesterday.
-Somebody is absent.
 
I don't know anybody in this room.
I haven't got anything in my bag.
The doctor can't find his pen anywhere.
 
Gördüğünüz gibi, "somebody,  something, somewhere" ifadeleri olumlu cümlelerde kullanılırken,
"anybody, anything, anywhere"  ifadeleri sadece soru cümlelerinde ve olumsuz cümlelerde kullanılır.

 

 

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