BEGINNER
ELEMENTARY
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INTERMEDIATE
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UPPER INTERMEDIATE
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Ders Konuları

Unit One

 

Today is Saturday.
Shewas in Ankara on Wednesday
Hewas in Tokyo on Friday

My parentswere in Sakarya on Tuesday.
Wewere in Africa on Monday.

 

 

It is 12 o'clock.
The children were at home this morning.
The dogs were in the garden at 10 o'clock.

 

Today is Saturday. Yesterday was Friday.
Thursday was two days ago.
Wednesday was three days ago.
There was a very good show on TV last night.
We went to Anıtkabir last month.
The teacher was angry last week.
There was an apple on the table last night.
My friends were here two minutes ago.

 

 

Geçmiş zamanı anlatmak için, isim cümlelerinde "was" ve "were" yardımcı fiillerini kullanırız.
İngilizce dilbilgisindeki kullanımları aynı "am, is, are" gibidir.  "am, is, are" ile geniş zamanı ifade ediyorduk.
"was" tekil şahıslar için, yani "am, is" yerine;
"were" de çoğul şahıslar için, yani "are" yerine kullanılır.

 

 

 
I
am
at home today.
I
was
at home yesterday.
He
She
It
 
is
 
a teacher.
He
She
It
 
was
 
a teacher.
We
You
They
 
are
 
students in middle school.
We
You
They
 
were
 
students in middle school last year.
 
 

 

 

Soru cümlesi kurmak için de, yine daha önceden öğrendiğimiz gibi, yardımcı fiili başa almalıyız.
WasGeorge at school on Tuesday?
Wereyou in Aylin's house yesterday?
What was your friend's name?
Who was your teacher?
Where were they this morning?
Were the trees green last month?
Why were you late?

 

 

Bu tense ile en sık kullanılan zaman belirteçleri; "yesterday", "last (week, month)", "(two days, an hour, three monts) ago"
yesterday morning, yesterday afternoon, last month, last week, 2 years ago, six months ago
 
Olumsuz cümleler de önceki konularda gördüğümüz şekilde yapılıyor. "Was" yerine "wasn't"; "were" yerine de "weren't" kullanırız.
They weren't in the meeting.
I wasn't in the club last night.
Ali and Fatma weren't friends last year, but now they are very close.
Who wasn't here last night?

 

 

 

 

 

İsimler "sayılabilir" ve "sayılamaz" olarak gruplanır. "Sayılabilir" isimlere örnekler:

student students computer computers
car cars balloon balloons
apple apples book books

 

Bazı isimler de "sayılamaz" olarak gruplandırılmıştır. Bunlar genellikle sıvı ve gaz  maddeler, çok küçük tanecikler gibi gerçekten de saymanın mümkün olmadığı şeylerdir. Bu isimler, çoğul yapılamazlar, sayılar ile nitelenemezler. "Sayılamaz" isimlere örnekler:

coffee tea food help
cheese salt music homework
sugar money traffic water

 

Sayılamaz isimler, tekil kullanılırlar. Özne olurlarsa, yardımcı fiil olarak "is" kullanmalıyız.
 
Sayılabilir isimlerin miktarını sormak için "how many"
Sayılamaz isimlerin miktarını sormak için ise "how much" soru öbeklerini kullanmalıyız. Bu basit kurallara dikkat etmeliyiz.

 

 

Şimdi bu sorulara cevap vermeyi öğrenelim.
A lot of tabirini, "çok" anlamında kullanırız. Hem "sayılabilir" hem de "sayılamaz" isimler için kullanılabilir.
There are a lot of cars on the road.            
Students have got a lot of books.           
I have got a lot of homework.
I want a lot of money.
 
-How many balloons are there in the toy store?
-There are a lot of balloons in the toy store.
 
-How many apples are there in the refrigerator?
-There are a lot of apples in the refrigerator.
 
-How many students are there in the classroom?
-There are a lot of  students in the classroom.
 
 
-How much food have you got?
-I have got a lot of food.
 
-How much sugar is there in the jar?
-There is a lot of sugar in the jar.
 
-How much water have you got in your bottle?
-I have got a lot of  water  in my bottle.
 
-How much salt is there in the salad?
-There is a lot of salt in the salad.

 

 

"a few", "a little" sözcükleri "az" manasına gelir.  "A few" sayılabilir isimler için kullanılır, "a little" da sayılamaz isimler için kullanılır.
I have got a few books on my desk.        
She has got a few friends.       
There are a few apples in the bag.       
I have got a little money.
There is a little water in the glass.
There is a little patrol in the car.
 
 
-How many computers are there in your school?
-There are a few computers in my school.
 
-How many dogs are there in the garden?
-There are a few dogs in the garden.
 
-How many houses are there in the your town?
-There are a few houses in my town.
 
 
-How much milk is there in the bottle?
-There is a little milk in the bottle.
 
-How much apple juice have you got in your glass?
-I have got a little apple juice in my glass.
 
-How much chocolate is there in the package?
-There is a little chocolate in the package.

 

"Some" kelimesini "bazı, bir miktar" gibi manalarda kullanırız. Hem sayılabilir, hem de sayılamaz isimler için kullanılabilir. Çokluk belirttiği için, sayılabilir isimler ile kullanılırken, ismi çoğul yapmayı unutmayalım. Sayılamaz isimler, zaten çoğul yapılamazlar.
My brother has got some toys.        
Some apples are green.           
Some trees are very short.       
 
There is some money in my wallet.
I have got some homework.
Some information is necessary for me.

 

 

"any" kelimesi de hem sayılabilir, hem de sayılamaz isimler için kullanılabilir. Ancak "any" sözcüğünü, soru cümlelerinde veya "not any" şeklinde negatif cümlelerde kullanırız. Cümleye "hiç" manası katar. Burada da sayılabilir isimler ile kullanılırken ismi çoğul yapmayı unutmayalım.
He doesn't play any musical instruments.   
We haven't got any books in the drawer.
Are there any oranges in the refrigerator?
Are there any birds in the cage?
 
I haven't got any money.
There isn't any fruit in the box.
Is there any coffee left in the jar?

 

 

 

You are a doctor, aren't you?
You don't like classical music, do you?
Cümlelerin sonuna virgül ile eklenen bu sorular, cümlede anlatılan ifadeyi pekiştirmek amacı ile sorulur. Bunlar, Türkçe'de cümlenin sonuna eklediğimiz "değil mi" sorusuna benzerdir.
Bu sorular,
    Cümlenin öznesi ve yardımcı fiili olmak üzere iki kelime ile kurulurlar.
    Pozitif cümleler negatife, negatif cümleler de pozitife çevrilirler.
    Ana cümleden virgül ile ayrılırlar ve sonlarına soru işareti konur.

 

Şimdi örnekler ile pekiştirelim.
 
Mice can't swim, can they?
That boy can run very fast, can't he?
They are on holiday, aren't they?
You aren't late for school, are you?
You love ice cream, don't you?
He always listens to rock music, doesn't he?
There are two cars, aren't there?
There isn't a meeting tonight, is there?
Your sister has got a pet, hasn't she?
The dog is chasing the cat, isn't it?
The doctor is talking to the nurse, isn't he?
The teacher won't give you a lot of homework, will she?
It is going to rain this weekend, isn't it?
You aren't going to go on a vacation, are you?
Ahmet was ill, wasn't he?
It wasn't snowy yesterday, was it?
The cars were in the garage, weren't they?
They weren't at school two days ago, were they?

 

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