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Unit 3 - Lesson 1 - Holiday Plans

Bu ünitede gelecek zamandan bahsetmeyi öğreneceğiz.

 

En çok kullandığımız gelecek zaman anlatma yöntemlerinden biri "be going to" ifadesidir. Yani planlarımızı bu tabirler ile anlatırız. "Be" yerine, "am, is, are" dan uygun olanını seçmeliyiz.
I am going to go to Antalya this summer.
He is going to call me this evening.
They are going to go to the cinema tomorrow.
 
Soru yapmak için "am, is, are" başa alınmalıdır. Ayrıca negatif yapmak için de "am not, isn't, aren't" kullanılabilir.

 

-Is she going to go to the USA first?
-Yes, she is. She is going to fly to the USA tomorrow.
-Is she going to go on a business trip?
-No she isn't going to go on a business trip,  she is going to go on a world tour.
-How many countries is she going to visit?
-She is going to visit four countries.
-Is she going to travel by bus?
-No, she's going to travel by plane.
-Why is she going to go to Paris?
-She is going to see the Eiffel Tower in Paris.

 

 

 

Martin envies Susan because Suzan likes travelling a lot.

 

 

-Where are you going to go this summer, Pelin?
-I'm going to go to the USA.
-Really? Are you going to go there for vacation?
-Yes, I'm going to go to Florida because I want to swim in the ocean. There are many beaches in Florida.
-Wow, you're very lucky. What else are you going to do in the USA?
-I'm going to visit many cities. I am going to go to the Disneyland park too.
-I envy you, Pelin. I love the Disneyland park. Could you do me a favour and send me pictures of the park?
-I don't have a camera. I can send you a lot of pictures if I can borrow your camera. May I borrow it?
-Sure!

 

I'm going to go to Florida because I want to swim in the ocean.
I'm going to go to Florida to swim in the ocean.

 

I going to go to the supermarket because  I want to buy some milk.
I going to go to the supermarket to buy some milk.
Bu şekilde, "to" kullanarak biri, diğerinin amacını bildiren iki cümleyi bağlamış oluruz.
She's going to attend a social club to meet new friends.

 

Suzan is going to go to a shop to do some shopping. After that, she's going to visit a travel office to plan a city tour. Then, she's going to go to the Statue of Liberty to take pictures and videos. Finally,  she's going to sit in a cafe and rest.
I like writing e-mails because I can send messages easily to my friends.  My friends send me funny e-mails too. I enjoy reading them.
The postcard from İstanbul is positive. The others are negative because it's too cold in the icy land, the food is awful at the national park and the beach in Copacabana is too crowded.
Dear friends,
We are in Florida now.
It is very hot here. We are sweating very much but the sea is wonderful. We go swimming every day. Our hotel is very good. There is an air conditon in our room. Our room is very cool. We are having a great time!
I am going to be back in a week. See you then!
Lots of love.
Tolga

Şimdi de karşılaştırma yapmayı öğrenelim.
Planes are more comfortable than buses.
Trains are cheaper than planes.

Selim is 15 years old. Veli is 13 years old.
Selim is older than Veli.
Bu cümleleri incelersek, "Selim 'in, Veli'den daha yaşlı olduğu" manasını anlarız. Bu yönteme "comperative" deriz. Bu yöntem ile, iki nesneden "daha üstün" olanını gösteririz.
 
That tree is longer than our house!

The soup in the green bowl is hotter than the other.

 

Comperative ile iki ismi şöyle kıyaslarız:

 

özne (1. isim) yüklem

sıfat veya zarfın

comparative hali

than nesne (2. isim)
My bicycle is newer than your bicycle.

 

Genellikle, comperative yapmak için sıfata "-er" eklenir. Uzun kelimelere ise, ek koymak yerine comperative yapmak için için önlerine "more" eklenir.
Şimdi en sık kullanılan sıfatların comperative hallerini tablomuzda gösterelim.

 

 

 
adjective
comperative
superlative
Çoğu kısa sıfata comperative yapmak için "-er", superlative için "-est" ekleriz.
old
fast
tall
small
high
hard
great
older
faster
taller
smaller
higher
harder
greater
oldest
fastest
tallest
smallest
highest
hardest
greatest
Bazı sıfatlarda ses uyumundan dolayı biraz farklı kullanımlar görülebilir.
safe
nice
large
safer
nicer
larger
safest
nicest
largest
busy
pretty
funny
busier
prettier
funnier
busiest
prettiest
funniest
big
hot
bigger
hotter
biggest
hottest
Uzun kelimelerin başına comperative için "more",
superlative için "most" eklenir.
important
expensive
difficult
carefully
more important
more expensive
more difficult
more carefully
most important
most expensive
most difficult
most carefully
Düzensiz bazı sıfat ve zarflar
good
bad
little
much/many
better
worse
less
more
best
worst
least
most

İstanbul is the busiest city in Türkiye.

Motorbikes are faster than bikes but motorbikes are more dangerour than bikes. Cars are safer than bikes and motorbikes. Cars are also faster than bikes and motorbikes.
Bikes are cheaper than motorbikes but riding a bike is harder than riding a motorbike.

-My home town is huge city. It has a population of twelve million. There are more people in this city than other cities in Türkiye. It is a very old city. It is older than a lot of cities.
-Well, my home town is a small town. There are only five thousand people in my home town. It isn't an old city. Your home town is older than mine.
-Are you going to go on holiday this year Sam?
-Yes, I'm going to go to Ankara for my holiday.
-When are you going to go?
-I'm going to go next week.
-How long are you going to stay there?
-I'm going to stay there for ten days.
-Where are you going to stay?
-I'm going to stay with my friend. His father has a house in Ankara.
-Do you have any plans? What are you going to do in Ankara?
-I am going to do sightseeing in Ankara. I am going to visit museums and parks there with my friend.
-That's very good, you're going to have a good time.
-What about you?
-Well, I think I'm going to visit Bodrum this summer. I am going to see the Underwater Archeology Museum. I am going to swimming every day. I am going to stay in a cheap pension. I am going to go next month and I'm going to stay for two weeks.
-Very good. I want to go to Bodrum too. Can we go together next year?
-Of course.

 

 

A man is walking in the street. There is a hole in front of him, but he isn't aware of the hole.  He is going to fall .
A girl is reading a book. She is studying very hard. She's going to get a high mark.
There are clouds in the sky. They are black clouds. It is going to rain.

 

 

-What is that girl doing?
-She's riding a bicycle. There is a hole in front of her but she doesn't see it.
-What is going to happen?
-I think she is going to go into the hole and fall down.
-Why isn't she stopping?
-Because she is going very fast.
-Who is going to help him?
-The other man is going to help him.
-Is he going to burn the food in picture 1?
-No, he isn't going to burn the food because he isn't cooking. He is eating.
-What's happening in picture 2?
-He is going to give her a present.
-Is the man carrying some plates in picture 3?
-Yes, but he is going to drop the plates.
-What do you think of picture 4?
-She is going to miss the bus.
-Is the woman in picture 5 very fat?
-No, she is going to have a baby.

-May I borrow your dictionary?
-Of course, here you are!

 
-It is too hot here. May I open the window?
-Sure.

 
-I am very bored. May I go home?
-Of course, but if you wait for ten minutes, we can go together.

-May I have a plate of rice please?
-I'm sorry but we don't have any rice left today.

 

İngilizce konuşurken "May I..." kalıbını kullanarak nazikçe istekte bulunuruz.

 

I usually ask my sister for help at home. She is older than me and she is very smart. She is good at answering my questions.