BEGINNER
ELEMENTARY
  •  
INTERMEDIATE
  •  
UPPER INTERMEDIATE
  •  
Ders Konuları

Unit 4 - Lesson 2 - Holiday Places and Past Times

 

I like going to exciting places on my holidays.

Fiil cümlelerinde geçmiş zamanı (simple past tense) ifade etmek için ise, yüklemi past hale çevirmek gerekir. Past hali v2 olarak ifade ediyoruz. Çoğu fiil, sonuna "-ed" takısı eklenerek past hale çevrilebilir. Bunlara "düzenli fiiller" yani "regular verbs" deriz.
I stayed at home yesterday afternoon.

The race started at 3 pm.

It finished at 4:30.

 

 

Her fiilin sonuna "-ed" ekleyemiyoruz, bazı fiillerin past formları "irregular" yani düzensizdir. Tablomuzda en sık kullanılan fiillerin past formlarını listeledik.

 

v1
v2
 
v1
v2
come
build
cut
fall
go
see
leave
write
sell
sleep
take
understand
win
wear
say
teach
read
came
built
cut
fell
went
saw
left
wrote
sold
slept
took
understood
won
wore
said
taught
read
find
catch
do
drive
have
make
meet
run
sit
speak
tell
buy
stand
eat
give
hear
know
think
found
caught
did
drove
had
made
met
ran
sat
spoke
told
bought
stood
ate
gave
heard
knew
thought

 

 

My friend sold his car to me.

I bought my friend's car.

John left the house at 6 am this morning.

We drove to there with my father.

 

 

 

Kevin and Amy decided to go for a holiday. The weather was very cold and rainy. A strange looking woman opened the door and there was a dirty dog under her arm.

 

Kevin and Amy introduced themselves and the lady invited them inside. The house looked old. There were many different noises coming from the house because the weather was windy. The lady showed Kevin and Amy thir rooms. It was a large room. There was a bed and a wardrobe in the room. There were chairs in the room but there wasn't a table. Kevin and Amy were very tired and they went to bed. First, they couldn't sleep because there was too much noise. Finally they fell asleep after an hour.

 

I am not afraid of empty buildings but I don't like going in them and discovering them because they are somebody's house. It is not appropirate to go into somebody's house without asking them.
In my story, there was a lot of noise in the house but in this story, there is a bad smell.
In this story, the lady showed them upstairs but in my story, she showed them their room.
In my story, they went to bed and slept but in this story they had a party.
This story tells about a suprrise but there was no surprise in my story.
My story tells about the room but this story doesn't.

Olumsuz hal ve soru hali için, "do" yardımcı fiilini past hali ile "did" olarak kullanacağız. Olumsuz cümleler için "did not" yani kısaca "didn't" kullanırız. "did, didn't" kullandıktan sonra yüklemin past halde değil,  yalın halde kullanılması gerektiğini unutmayalım. Soru cümlelerinde de, tahmin edebileceğiniz gibi "did" sözcüğü öznenin önüne alınır.

I didn't see him last week.

The man caused an accident because he didn't stop at the red light.

Did you talk to Ahmet about his homework.

Didn't you do your homework yesterday?

Why didn't you do it?

What did you see in the room when you opened the door?

 

Simple past tense konu anlatımı için tıklayın.

"Could", kelimesi "can" kelimesinin past hali gibidir. Yani geçmişteki becerilerimizi anlatırız.
He could talk when he was two years old.
I could run very fast two years ago.

 

I could talk when I was five years old.
I could walk when I was five years old.
I could sing when I was five years old.
I could run when I was five years old.
I couldn't ride a bicycle when I was five years old.
I couldn't play basketball when I was five years old.
I couldn't speak English when I was five years old.
I couldn't use a computer when I was five years old.

-Could you play basketball when you were five years old Mustafa?
-No, I couldn't play basketball. But I could play hide and seek  when I was five years old.
-What about you, Selim. Could you play basketball when you were five years old?
-No, I couldn't. But I could use a computer when I was five years old. Could you do that?
-Yes, I could use a computer when I was five years old too.
-Could you lift heavy things when you were five years old?
-I could lift some heavy things. I was very strong.
-Could your sister lift heavy things when she was five years old?
-No she couldn't.

 

  "Used to" ile, geçmişte sık yapılan, ama artık yapılmayan eylemler (bunlara geçmiş alışkanlıklar da diyebiliriz) anlatılır. İngilizce olarak geçmiş zamana dair anılarımızı yazarken veya bir arkadaşımıza geçmişte yaptığımız şeylerden bahsederken bu yapıyı kullanabiliriz. Used to kullandığımızda, eylemin bugün devam etmediği anlaşılır.

 

 

özne + used to + fiil + alışkanlık 
   I      used to     play   football      with my friends everyday.

We used to have picnics on weekends.
I used to study very hard when I was in high school.
They used to go to school by bus.

 
"used to" ifadesini soru haline veya negatif hale getirirken, geçmiş zaman için uyguladığımız kuralları kullanırız. Cümleye "did" yardımcı fiilini ekleriz. "did" kullanıldığı zaman da, öbekteki fiil "use"olarak yalın halde kullanılmalıdır.
Did you use to ride a bicycle when you were a child?
We didn't use to go to the same school.

 

Şirince is in İzmir. The people used to call that village "Çirkince" because they didn't want to share the beauty of the village with the foreigners. The people used to cultivate fig and tobacco. Nowadays, women sell handicrafts and olive oil in the narrow streets.
I know that place in the picture. It is Üsküdar. That mosque is Mihrimah Sultan Mosque. I like this picture very much and I am very interested in old pictures like this.

 

-How did people use to communicate in the past?
-They used to communicate by pigeons.
-Oh! That's very interesting. How did people use to listen to the news in the past?
-They used to listen to the news on the radio. What about music? How did they used to listen to music?
-I think they used to listen to music on the gramophone.

 

My father's childhood:
My parents's lives were very different when they were children. For example, my father used to get up very early and help my grandfather before he went to school. He used to work in the garden for two hours. Then, he used to run to the train and go to school in another town because there weren't any schools in his town. After school, he used to take the train back to his town. He used to play with his friends in the evenings and he used to go to bed very early because he used to get up very early too.