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Unit 5 - Lesson 3 - Computers

The article is about computers. The article tells about things computers are used for. It also tells about people computers are used by.

 

 

 

Computers are used by everyone.
They are made of plastic and electrical components.
They are used for entertainment.
Bu cümlelerde bir farklılık hemen dikkat çekiyor. Hem "are" kullandık, hem de fiili past halde kullandık. Şimdi neden olduğunu öğrenelim:
Bu ünitede "edilgenlik" konusuna giriş yapacağız. Edilgenlik (Passive) kullanımı, Türkçe'dekine çok benzerdir. Normalde, etken cümlelerde özne, eylemi gerçekleştiren kişi olur. Edilgen cümlelerde ise, bahsedilen eylemi yapan değil, eylemden etkilenen kişi özne olarak kullanılmıştır.
Yani öznenin yüklemde belirtilen eylemi yapan değil, eylemden etkilenen olduğu cümlelere edilgen cümle denir. 

 

 

Bu konuda, edilgen cümle yapısından bahsedeceğiz. Bu yapıyı örneğimiz üzerinde gösterelim:
"Hırsız arabayı çalar." Bu, etken cümlemizdir.
"Araba çalınır."  Bu cümlenin ise biraz daha farklı olduğunu görüyoruz. Cümlenin yüklemi "çalındı" kelimesi oluyor. "Araba" da, özne görevindedir.
Mana olarak ise, özne aslında eylemi gerçekleştiren değildir. Sadece eylemden etkilenendir.
İngilizce 'de de kullanım yerleri ve manaları hemen hemen aynıdır. Şimdi etken cümleyi edilgene çevirmeyi öğrenelim.
 
The thiefstealsthe car.
 
 
The caris stolenby the thief.

 
Yapmamız gerekenler:

  • Etken cümlenin nesnesi, edilgen cümlede özne olarak kullanılır.
  • Etken cümlenin öznesi, yani işi esas yapan kişi "by" sözcüğünden sonra eklenebilir. Ancak eklemek şart değildir, hatta çoğunlukla da eklenmez.
  • Fiil, passive hale çevrilir. Fiillerin passive hali  "be+v3" şeklindedir. "Be", şahsa göre "am, is, are" şekillerinde kullanılabilir. 

 
Computers are used for playing games and sending e-mails. Computers are used for shopping too.

 

 

Data and programs are stored in hard disc.
All the other parts of the system are controlled by CPU.
A fan is almost always attached to the CPU.
RAM can be used by programs to perform necessary tasks while the computer is on.

 

 

Bazı passive öbekleri:
made of        
grown in
used for
used by

 

Where is this printer made?
What is it made of?
Who is it used by?
Why is it used?

I spend fifteen minutes a day in front of TV. I only watch the news in the morning while I'm having breakfast.

 

I can have a long vacation in 45 days. I can travel to many cities. I can be a professional gamer if I spend 1095 hours in front of the computer.
 

My family spends 3 hours in front of TV every evening. We watch TV at dinner table. I don't like watching TV. I prefer using my computer and going on the internet.

 

 

Şu ana kadar gördüğümüz edilgen cümleler, hep geniş zaman ileydi. Bu nedenle hep "am, is, are" kullandık. Edilgen cümlelerde de farklı tenseler olabilir. Edilgen cümlenin tense ini, kullanılan yardımcı fiilden (be) anlarız. Mesela, geçmiş zaman için "am, is, are" yerine "was, were" kullanabiliriz.

 

 

Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.
Crime and Punishment was written by Dostoyevski.
The Olympic Games were started by th Greeks.
Turkish March was composed by Mozart.

 

 

İstiklal Marşı was written by Mehmet Akif and composed by Zeki Üngör. Nutuk was told by Atatürk.

 

Fiona's house was burgled last night. The door was opened with a key. Her jewellery and TV set were stolen. Police was called, photos were taken. People was questioned and burglar was arrested.

 

The story of a dead body.
A dead body was found in the forest yesterday. The victim was shot in the head. An investigation was made. The bullet was matched to another bullet in another crime. Police continued the investigation and a man was arrested. He was taken to court and he was found guilty by the judge. The man was sent to prison.

 

 

-Who was TV invented by?
-It was invented by John Baird.
-When was it invented?
-It was invented in 1926.

-When were the firt special effect techniques in cinema used?
-They were used in 1902.

 
-Where was the first telegraph sent from?
-It was sent from Washington.
-Where was the first telegraph sent to?
-It was sent to Baltimore.

 

There are some notices in my school's notice board. Those notices are about safety.

 

None of those signs are common in my country because in my country, notices are prepared in Turkish. Some of the shapes in these notices are similar to Turkish notices. F, d and h are common.

 

 

No smoking!
Military zone, do not enter!

 

Children's day is on April the twenty-third every year. We celebrate it because the Grand Turkish National Assembly was opened that day.
Our hero, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk became a hero in Çanakkale after many victories in 1915.
The Grand Turkish National Assembly was founded in nineteen twenty.
Atatürk was elected as the First President of Turkish Republic in  the Grand Turkish National Assembly.

 

We celebrate April twenty-third with parades and ceremonies. The soldiers and students march in the streets. The children make shows in stadiums. Songs are sung, poems are read, dances are danced and plays are played.