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Unit 5 - Lesson 1 - Telephone

Telephone is more suitable because I can call my friend and hear his/her voice on a telephone. Leaving a note is more suitable if I went to visit my grandma and she wasn't at home.

 

 

Bu ünitede "present perfect tense"i öğreneceğiz.
My father has just left the house.
We have completed the race.

She has seen that movie before.

Bu kullanıma "Present perfect tense" denir. Bu kullanımın Türkçe'de tam bir karşılığı yoktur. Genel olarak, geçmişte gerçekleşmiş olaylar ile bugün arasında bir çeşit ilişki kurar. Eylemin gerçekleştiği kesin zaman önemli değildir çünkü esas vurgulanan, eylemin içinde bulunduğumuz zamana etkisidir.

Önemli notlar:

  • Kullanım, "have + v3" şeklindedir.
  • 3. tekil şahıslar için "have" yerine "has" kullanılmalıdır.
  • Have burada yardımcı fiil rolündedir.

v3 ise, fiilin üçüncü hali demektir. Daha önce geçmiş zaman için fiilin ikinci halini kullanmıştık. Perfect tense isimli bu kullanım için de v3 kullanacağız.
Düzenli fiillerde, ikinci ve üçüncü haller aynıdır, yani kısaca fiilin sonuna "-ed" ekleriz. Düzensiz fiillerin üçüncü hallerini ise, yine tabloda vereceğiz.

 

 

v1
v2
v3
 
v1
v2
v3
come
build
cut
fall
go
see
leave
write
sell
sleep
take
understand
win
wear
say
teach
read
came
built
cut
fell
went
saw
left
wrote
sold
slept
took
understood
won
wore
said
taught
read
come
built
cut
fallen
gone
seen
left
written
sold
slept
taken
understood
won
worn
said
taught
read
 
find
catch
do
drive
have
make
meet
run
sit
speak
tell
buy
stand
eat
give
hear
know
think
found
caught
did
drove
had
made
met
ran
sat
spoke
told
bought
stood
ate
gave
heard
knew
thought
found
caught
done
driven
had
made
met
ran
sat
spoken
told
bought
stood
eaten
gave
heard
known
thought

 

 

have "'ve", has de "'s" şeklinde kısaltılabilir. Olumsuz yapmak için basitçe yardımcı fiile "not" eklenir, soru yapmak için de yardımcı fiil başa alınır. Her durumda, hem yardımcı fiil (have) hem de v3 beraberce kullanılır.
I haven't met John.
Have you met him?

 
Ayrıca, "just, already, yet" kelimeleri ile de ilk defa bu tense ile beraber karşılaşıyoruz.
"just" kelimesi, yapılan eylemin "henüz, az önce" bittiğini söyler. "Just" sözcüğü, "henüz" anlamına gelir ve yardımcı fiil (have, has) den hemen sonra kullanılır.
The plane has just arrived.

My brother has just finished his homework.
 
 

 

"already" sözcüğü, "çoktan" manasını verir. Yani belirtilen eylem, geçmişte yapılmıştır.
I have already heard his new song.        I have seen heard it in the past.   

 
"yet" sözcüğü ise eylemin henüz yapılmadığı manasını verir. Bu kullanımda, cümleyi olumsuz kurarız.
She hasn't called me yet.            She might call in the future.

 
"Already" ve "just" genelde pozitif cümlelerde, "yet" ise negatif cümleler ve soru cümlelerinde kullanılır. Ayrıca "already" genelde cümlenin ortasında (fiilden önce), "yet" de sonunda bulunur.
 

 

 

-Hi, Steve.
-Hi, Alice.
-We're going to a picnic this Saturday with a few friends, would you like to join us?
-I think I can join you. Who is coming?
-Sheila and Hans are coming. I am going to call George and Mary to invite them but I've lost their phone numbers.
-I can give you their numbers. I'll send you an e-mail.
-Thank you.
-Have you invited Joe? He would like to come too.
-Well, I have just called him but he said he has plans for Saturday. So he isn't coming.
-All right, thanks for inviting me Alice. See you at the picnic.
-Bye.

 

She has hasn't ordered the food yet.

She has sent an e-mail to Fred and she has already arranged the music.

She has already ordered the costume but she hasn't made the decorations or done the cleaning.

 

 

do research for homework
I haven't done research for homework.

Buy test books
I've just bought test books.

 
Study the test books
I haven't studied the test books yet.

 

Harry is worried because his daughter hasn't come home yet.
Mrs. Harrison is happy because she's just won the lottery.
Mike is confused because he hasn't solved the problem yet.
I am very tired because I have just finished a football game.
The man has just dropped his wallet.
He has just won fifty thousand dollars.
He has just fallen from the horse.
She has just baked a cake.
He has just completed a marathon.
I've just left a message in an answering machine.
Hi, Sue, I've just received your message and I am calling you to say thanks for inviting me. See you at the party.

 

"ever, never" sözcüklerinin present perfect tense ile sık sık kullanırız. "never" sözcüğü ile daha önce "sıklık bildiren ifadeler"den bahsederken karşılaşmıştık. "Never" "asla" demektir. Olumlu cümlelerde kullanılır ve cümleye mana olarak olumsuzluk katar. "Ever" sözcüğünü ise soru cümlelerinde kullanıyoruz. En çok da geçmişteki tecrübeleri "hiç yaptın mı" anlamında sormak için kullanırız.
-Have you ever seen the movie "Godfather"?
-Yes, I have.         veya         No, I haven't.        veya         No, I've never seen it.

 

-Has your father ever done a dangerous sport?
-I don't think so. I think he has never done a dangerous sport.
-What about you? Have you ever done a dangerous sport?
-Yes, I have done racing a few times.

 

 
-Have you ever driven an unusual vehicle?
-No, I have never driven an unusual vehicle.
-Has any of your friends ever driven an unusual vehicle?
-Yes, Ned has driven a truck shaped like a hot dog sandwich.
-That's very interesting.

 

-Have you ever eaten Chinese food?
-No I haven't. But I have eaten sushi! Have you ever tried sushi?
-No, I haven't because I don't like fish.

 

My favourite actor is Marlon Brando. He played in the Godfather movie. I have watched his movie a lot of times. What about you? Have you ever watched it?

 

"Since" sözcüğüyle, geçmişte bir noktadan itibaren günümüze kadar geçen vakti anlatırız. "Since" kullanmak için, kesin bir başlangıç noktası belirtilmelidir.
I have lived in İstanbul since '82.
I have been in this city since May 15th.
I haven't talked to Mary since last week.

 

"For" sözcüğünü ise bugüne kadar geçen sürenin miktarını anlatmak için kullanırız.
He hasn't been to school for a week.
She has stayed in her friend's house for 2 months.

 

"Since" eylemin başlangıç tarihini,  "for" ise eylemin süresini bildirir.
I've been married for 2 years.
I've been married since May 2007.

 

This man's name is Justin Timberlake. He is a famous artist. He was born on the thirty-first on Janurary, nineteen eighty-one. He is a singer and he made is first album in two thousand and two. He has won 5 Grammy and 1 Emmy awards and  he his latest album has sold 18 million records. He has appeared in ten movies. He has not been married.

Since Susan bought a mobile phone, she has never stopped using it.
Susan has never stopped using her mobile phone since she bought it.
Sine Jack faxed his CV to the companies, Jack has been getting a lot of job offers.
Jack has been getting a lot of job offers sine he faxed his CV to the companies.
Since the information revolution began, communications have become quicker and cheaper
Communications have become quicker and cheaper since the information revolution began.

 

 

Since sözcüğünden sonra eylem için bir başlangıç vakti vermeliyiz. Bunu tarih olarak yapabileceğimiz gibi, ayrı bir alt cümlecik olarak da verebiliriz. Bu şekilde kurulan alt cümlecikler genellikle simple past tense ile kurulur.

 

 

Present Perfect Tense Türkçede tam olarak karşılığı olmayan bir tensedir.  Bu nedenle bu tense ile ligili ingilizce konuşma pratikleri ve okumalar yaparsak, anlamını daha iyi kavrarız. Present Perfect Tense konu anlatım bölümümüzde tüm kullanımlar detaylı olarak incelenmiştir. İlgili sayfaya gitmek için lütfen tıklayın.

    

 

The KU5 model can send messages with pictures and video but th3 model can only send snapshots.
KU5 and TH3 models have cameras but KU5's camera is better. TH3 is smaller but thicker. KU5 has wireless connection but TH3 has infrared connection to PC. TH3 has a camera but KU5 doesn't.

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