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The Past Tense

 

 

Çirkinim. I am ugly. Cherr-keen-im.
Çirkindim. I was ugly. Cheer-keen-deam.
Hayır, güzeldin. No, you were beautiful. Hah-yır, guew-zale-deen.
Çok yorgunduk. We were very tired. Chohk yohr-goon-dook.
Kedi temizdi. The cat was clean. Kaydy tay-meez-dy.

 

As you can see, the past tense of the verb "to be" is formed by adding the followig suffixes (which should comply with the rule of euphony) to the adjective.

 

1 st person singular -dim   1 st person plural -dik
2 nd person singular -din   2 nd person plural -diniz
3 rd person singular -di   3 rd person plural -diler

 

 

 

When the adjective ends in a vowel, the letter "-y is put before the suffix.

 

 

Mutluydum. I was happy. Deliydi. He was crazy.

 

 

 

One can also put an "-i", without joining to the adjective
Hasta idim. I was ill. Dolap kapalı idi. The cupboard was closed.

 

On the other hand, the "d" of the above suffixes is changed into "t" when the adjective ends in " ç, f, h, k, p, s, ş, t"  (similar to the note in lesson 2)

Ev yüksektir. The house is high. Gençtik We were young.

 

 

 

 

Akıllı intelligent ah-kıl-lı
Çirkin ugly cheer-keen
Az insufficient, little ahz
Sıcak hot,warm sı,jahk
Çok many,much,very chohk
Soğuk cold soh-ook
Alçak low ahl-chahk
Kıt scarce kıt
Dürüst honest dew-rewst
Kısa short kı-sah
Kederli sad kay-der-ly
Taze Fresh, new tah-zay
Mutsuz unhappy moot-sooz
Gece night guay-jay

 

 

Mutluydum. I was happy. Mutsuzdum. I was unhappy.
Akıllıydın. You were intelligent. Ekmek tazeydi. The bread was fresh.
Çay sıcaktı. The tea was hot. Süt soğuktu. The milk was cold.
Peynir azdı. The cheese was insufficient. Sabun kıttı. The soap was scarse.
Günler kısaydı. The days were short. Geceler uzundu. The nights were long.
Kederliydiler. They were sad. Hastaydım. I was ill.
Gençtik. We were young.    

 

 

To obtain the negative past tense, the above-mentioned suffixes are used with the adverb "değil" forming thus a locution which has not to comply with the rule of euphony since it is never joined to another word.

 

Yorgun değilim. I was not tired.
Kahve çok sıcak değildi. The coffee was not very hot.
Paul ve Henry hasta değildiler. Paul and Henry were not ill.
Pek mutsuz değildiniz. You were not very unhappy.
Pek genç değildik. We were not very young.
Hayır, çirkin değildiniz. No,you were not ugly.

 

 

 

To obtain the interrogative past tense, "miydi" (or "mıydı, müydü, muydu according to the rule of euphony) without joining. For the negative form, "değil" is placed before the locution without joining.

 

 

Genç miydim? Was I young?
Hasta mıydın? Were you ill?
Dürüst müydü? Was he honest?
Uzun muydu? Was it long?
Hasta değil miydiniz? Were you not ill?
Peynir az değil miydi? Was cheese not insufficient?
Günler kısa değil miydiler? Were the days not short?
Neşeli değil miydiniz? Were you not merry?
Ekmek kıt mıydı? Was bread scarce?
Paul ve Henry hasta mıydılar? Were Paul and Henry ill?

 

 

 

The affirmative "hearsay" tense is obtained through the following suffixes (which comply with the rule of euphony) :

 

1 st person singular - mişim   1 st person plural - mişiz
2 nd person singular - mişsin   2 nd person plural - mişsiniz
3 rd person singular - miş   3 rd person plural - mişler
For the negative "hearsay" tense, these suffixes are applied to the adverb "değil" and the locution thus obtained is always invariable. (The 3 rd person plural can be either değilmişler or değillermiş).

 

Zenginmişim. (It seems that) I was rich. 
Mutlu değilmişsiniz. ( It seems that) you were not happy. 
Peynir taze değilmiş. ( It seems that) the cheese was not fresh.
Paul yorgunmuş ( It seems that) Paul was tired.
Genç değilmişim. ( It seems that) I was not young.
Yorgun değilmişiz. ( It seems that) we were not tired.
Paul ve Henry hasta değillermiş. ( It seems that) Paul ve Henry were not ill.

 

 

 

Exercise 7.  Put the following phrases into Turkish.
 
I was rich.
You were merry (2 nd person singular).
We were young.
You were nice (2 nd person plural).
Paul was poor.
 They were tired.
I was not clean.
Paul was not mad.
We were not merry.
Were you happy? (2 nd person singular).
Were you not ill? (2 nd person plural).
It seems that the tea was cold.
The table was low.

 

Son Gelen Soru

Had eğer sadece past tense olarak kullanılırsa have fiilinin geçmiş halidir. Ör: I had two exams yesterday. dün iki sınavım vardı. ancak past perfect tense de yardımcı fiil olarak kullanılır ve geçmişte olan iki olaydan önce olanını anlatmak için kullanılır. Ör: When you came, I had gone, sen geldiğin zaman ben gitmiştim anlamında Cevabı ve devamı için tıklayın >>