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Ders Konuları

The Suffix

 
yazmak To write yahz-mahk yazılmak to be written yahzıl-mahk
 
Mektup çoktan yazıldı. The letter has been written. Make-toop chochc-tahn yahzıl-dı.
 
 
 
Okumak To read Ocoo-mahk okunmak to be read ocoon-mahk
 
Kitap heniz okunmadı. The book has not been read Ketahp hay-newz ocoon-maydı yet.
 

 

 
 
The suffix of the "passive voice" is "-il" (or "-ıl, -ül, -ul") put between the stem and the termination; this suffix turns into "-in" (or "-ın, -ün, -un") when the stem ends in "l". If the stem ends in a vowel, the suffix is merely an "n".
 
 
çoktan for a long time, long ago. chohc-tahn Henüz Just, yet hay-newz
herkes everbody hare-kess Dikmek to sew. deek-make
Öpmek to kiss öp-make Pişmek to cook peesh-make
Çalmak to rob, To steal, to play music chchl -mahk Yatmak to lie down yaht-mahk
aramak to seek ahrah-mahk Değil mi? isn't it? dayğeel me?
elbise clothes ale-be-say Ağlamak to cry, to weep ahğ-lah-mahk
düşmek to fall dewsh-make Korkmak to fear, to be frightened cork-mahk
Akmak to flow, to leak ahk-mahk Bağlamak to tie, to fasten bahğ-lahmahk
Varmak to arrive, to reach vahr-mahk Dövmek to strike. To beat. döv-make
           
 
 
 
Sevmek To love sevilmek to be loved
Satmak To sell satılmak to be sold
Öpmek To kiss öpülmek to be kissed
Bulmak To find bulunmak to be found
Çantam çalındı My bag has been stolen    
 
 
Biletler henüz alınmadı. The tickets haven't been bought (taken) yet; (taken) yet; they II be bought.
Hırsız aranacak Thief will be sought
Paul herkesçe seviliyor. Paul is loved by everbody.
Çanta bulundu mu? Has the bag been found?
Arandı ve bulundu It has been sought and it has been found
 
 
Sevmek to love Sevdirmek to let or cause to beloved
Yazmak to write Yazdırmak to cause to write orbe written
Dövmek to beat Dövdürmek to let be beaten
Sormak to ask Sordurmak to let be asked
 

 

 

 

The suffix of the "causative" mood is "-dir" (or "-dır, -dür, -dur") applied to the stem.When the latter ends in "ç,f,h,k,p,s,ş,t" (see the note of lesson 2), the suffix turns into "-tir" (or "-tır, -tür, -tur").

 
Dikmek to sew Diktirmek to let or make sew
Açmak to open Açtırmak to cause to open to letbe opened
Öpmek to kiss Öptürmek to let be kissed
Etmek to do Ettirmek to cause to do
Koşmak to run Koşturmak to let or cause torun
 
 

 

 

If the stem ends in a vowel the suffix is merely a "t". Likewise, when the stem ends in "r" or "I", some verbs have "-t" as suffix.

 

oturmak to sit down oturtmak to seat
Ağlamak to weep Ağlatmak to cause to weep
Yürümek to walk Yürütmek to let or cause to walk
Yıkamak to wash Yıkatmak to let or make wash

 

Some verbs from the " causative " mood with the following suffixes and their derivatives : "-ir, -er, -ar, -it".

 

 
Akmak to flow Akıtmak to let or make flow
Düşmek to fall Düşürmek to cause to fall, to letor make fall
içmek to drink içirmek to make or cause to drink
Korkmak to fear Korkutmak to frighten
Yatmak to lie down Yatırmak to let or cause toliedown
 
 
 
Beni koşturdunuz. You made me run.
Çocuğu ağlatıyorsunuz. You are making the child cry.
Beni konuşturmuyorsunuz. You don't let me talk.
Bir elbise diktiriyorum. I am having a dress sewed for me
Kendimi öptürmeyeceğim. I won't let myself be kisssed.
Gömlerğimi yıkatmak istiyorum. I want to have my shirt washed.
Mektubunu Paul' a yazdırdım. I let Paul write my letter.
 
 
Sevmek =. – To love sevebilmek to be able to love
Varmak =. - To reach varabilmek to be able to reach
Bağlamak = - To tie bağlayabilmek to be able to tie
Yürümek = - To walk yürüyebilmek to be able to walk.
Sevmek – To love sevebilmek to be unable to love
Varmak =. -. To reach varamamak to be unable to reach
Bağlamak =. –. To tie bağlayamamak to be unable to tie
Yürümek =. -. To walk yürüyememek to be unable to walk
 

 

 

 

 

 


The "possibility" or "ability" form (can, may) is formed by adding "-e" (or "-a") to the stem; followed by the suffix "-bilmek" ( meaning here: to be able to, to be in a position to, to be allowed to, etc.). When the stem is ended in a vowel, "-e" (or "-a") turns into "-ye" (or "-ya").

In the negative form "-e, -a, -ye, -ya" turn into "-eme, -ama, -yeme, -yama" and "bilmek"  is dropped.

 


 
Cevap verebilirim. I can answer.
Dikkat edebilirdin. You could pay attention.
Kabul edemeyeceğim. I won't be able to accept.
Şarkı söyleyebilirim I can ( I am allowed to ) sing.
değil mi? isn't it?
Rahatsız olabilirdi. He could be disturbed.
Nefes alamıyorum. I cannot breathe.
Ödünç veremeyiz. We are not in a position to lend.
Ödünç alabilirsiniz. You can ( or may ) borrow.
Haber alamayacağız. We won't be able to have news.
Özür dileyebilirdiniz. You could apologize.
Kardeşimi görebildiniz mi? Could you see my brother?
Evet, görebildim. Yes, I could see him.
Hayır, göremedim. No, I couldn't see him.
Tiyatroya gidebildiniz mi? Could you go to the theatre?
Hayır, tiyatroya gidemedik. No, we couldn't go to the theatre.
Gözlüksüz görebiliyor musunuz? Can you see without spectacles?
Hayır, gözlüksüz göremem. No, I cannot see without glasses.
 
 
".... ten" (or tan) sonra After having...
Yedikten sonra After having ate
Okuduktan sonra After having read
Yürüdükten sonra After having walked
Yaptıktan sonra After having done.
 

 

 

 

As you can see, expressions with "after having" (or "having") are formed in Turkish by adding to the first person plural of the past tense of verbs (see 19 th lesson) the particle "-ten" (or "-tan").

Mektubu yazdıktan sonra, postaneye gittim.
After having written the letter, I went to the post office.

Dersimi öğrendikten sonra, sinemaya gittim.
(After) having learned my lesson, I went to the movies.

Ona baktıktan sonra, onu tanıdım.
(After) having looked at him, I recognizes him.

Belgeyi imza ettikten sonra, pişman oldu.
( After )having sined the document, he repented it.