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Ders Konuları

Reported Speech

Bazen ingilizce konuşurken veya yazarken bir  başkasının sözünü aktarmak isteriz.  Bunun için  "Quoted speech", veya "Reported speech" kullanırız.

 

Quoted speech, söylenen sözün tırnak işaretleri içinde birebir aktarılmasıdır.

Reported speech ise, anlatılan fikrin kelimeler bire bir kullanmadan kendi kelimelerimizle aktarılmasıdır.  Bu şekilde aktarırken, cümle yapısında bazı değişiklikler meydana gelir.

 

Quoted speech şöyledir:

Ahmet: Ineed help with my homework. Ali: Ican help you.
Ahmet said "Ineed help with my homework." Ali said "Ican help you."

  

Reported speech ise şöyle kullanılır:
 Ahmet said (that) heneeded help with his homework.  Ali said (that) hecan help him.

 

 

 

Reported speech kullanırken;
  • Tırnak işaretleri kullanılmaz.
  • That kelimesi anlam karmaşası olmadığı durumlarda omit yapılabilir.
  • Zamirler, bazı sıfatlar (özellikle possessive), vakit ve yer belirten kelimeler bazı durumlarda değişmelidir. Bu değişiklikleri tamamen mantığa uygun olarak yapacağız.
  • Tense değişebilir. Yani aktarılan cümlenin tense'i de önemlidir.

 

 

 

Reported speech ile aktarım yapmak için, bir reporting verb (aktarım fiili) yüklem olarak kullanılmalıdır. En sık olarak "say" fiilini kullanırız. Bu fiili, aktarılacak sözün söylendiği vakte göre, uygun tense ile kullanmalıyız. Çoğunlukla aktarım fiilini simple past tense ile kullanırız.

 

 

 

Anında aktarım (cümle söylendiğinden çok kısa bir vakit sonra aktarım) veya genel geçer kuralların aktarımı gibi nadir durumlarda, yüklemi (aktarım fiilini) present tense ile kullanırız. Böyle durumlarda, aktarılan cümlenin tense'i korunur .

They say that the movie Godfather is the best movie in the world.

 

Ayşe: I always get up at 7:30.

Ayşe says that she always gets up at 7:30

 

 

 

Aktarılan cümlenin tense yapısı, yüklemi "present perfect" ve "future tense" ile kullanacağımız durumlarda da korunur.

 

En sık kullanılan yöntem ile, yani simple past tense ile aktarım yapacağımız zaman ise, aktarılan sözün tense'ini de "bir geri" alarak kullanırız.

He said "I am very sick."

He said that he was very sick.

 

They said "You are too young to ride a horse."

They said I was too young to ride a horse.

 

 

 

Say fiilini past tense ile kullanınca aktarılan cümlede

simple present yerine simple past,
present continuous yerine past continuous,
present perfect yerine past perfect tense kullanmalıyız.

 

Hans:I live in Munich.

Hans said that he lived in Munich.

 

Sam:I am tired.

Sam said that he was tired.

 

 

 

Bazı durumlarda, -özellikle çok kısa zaman evvel söylenenleri aktaracağımızda- "said" yükleminden sonra present tense de kullanabiliriz. Bu durum, istisna sayılır.

Joe:I want to go home.

Joe said that he wants to go home.

 

 

 

Şimdi bunları bir tablo ve örnekler ile açıklayalım.

 

Henry said:
 
 
"I play tennis."
Henry said he played tennis.
"I am playing tennis."
Henry said he was playing tennis
"I played tennis."
Henry said he had played tennis.
"I was playing tennis."
Henry said he had been playing tennis.
"I have played tennis."
Henry said he had played tennis.
"I have been playing tennis."
Henry said he had been playing tennis.
"I had played tennis."
Henry said he had played tennis.
"I had been playing tennis."
Henry said he had been playing tennis.
"I will play tennis."
Henry said he would play tennis.
"I will be playing tennis."
Henry said he would be playing tennis.
"I am going to play tennis."
Henry said he was going to play tennis.
"I can play tennis."
Henry said he could play tennis.
"I may play tennis."
Henry said he might play tennis.
"I might play tennis."
Henry said he might play tennis.
"I must play tennis."
Henry said he had to play tennis.
"I have to play tennis."
Henry said he had to play tennis.
"I should play tennis."
Henry said he should play tennis.
"Play tennis!"
Henry told me to play tennis.
"Do you play tennis?"
Henry asked (me) if I played tennis.
"What do you play?"
Henry asked (me) what I played.

 

 

 

Ayrıca zamirleri de söyleyene uygun olarak düzeltmeliyiz. Zamirlerin düzeltilmesi tamamen mantığa bağlıdır. "Söylenen sözü" ve "söyleyen kişileri" düşünerek ve hangi çeşit zamir ise, o çeşitten olmasına dikkat ederek (subject pronoun ise, yine subject pronoun kullanmalıyız; yanlışlıkla object pronoun kullanmamaya dikkat etmeliyiz), uygun olan şahsa çevirmeliyiz.

 

 

 

Past hali olan modallar, past halleriyle kullanılır. Diğer durumlarda, modal değişime uğramaz.

will yerine would
can yerine could
may yerine might
must yerine had to kullanılır.

 

 

 

Örnekleri inceleyerek konuyu pekiştirmeye çalışalım.

The teacher said: "Youmay leave the classroom."

The teacher said that Imight leave the classroom.

 

I said "Imust call the police."

I told him that Ihad to call the police.

 

He said "My teacherwas shouting to the lazy students."

He said that his teacherhad been shouting to the lazy students.

 

She said "My friend and I

are going to be graduated soon."

She said that she and her friendwere going to be graduated soon.

 

The man said "Theyhaven't arrived yet."

The man said that theyhadn't arrived yet.

 

 

 

İmperative cümleler yani emir cümleleri, infinitive olarak kullanılır.

The police said "Stop, or I'll shoot."

The police told me to stop or hewould shoot.

 

My mum said "Areyougoing to come home early?"

My mum askedwhetherIwas going to come home early.

 

Teacher asked my friend: "When hasAmerica been discovered?"

Teacher asked my friend when Americahad been discovered.

 

Teacher asked me "Canyou tell me when America has been discovered?"

Teacher asked me if Icould tell her when America had been discovered.

 

 

 

Vakit belirteçleri (genelde zarflar) da uygun şekilde düzeltilmelidir.

 

Quoted Speech
Reported Speech
Today
That day
this morning (evening...)
that morning(evening...)
these days (months, weeks...)
those days (months, weeks...)
now
then
ago (two days ago...)
before (two days before)
last month (week...)
the month before (week...) or
the previous month (week...)
next month (week...)
the following month (week...)
yesterday
the day before or the previous day
tomorrow
the next day or the following day

 

 

 

 

Söylendiği zamana uygun olarak farklı çeviriler de yapabiliriz. Mesela "24 saat önce, today" denen bir cümleyi, "yesterday" olarak çevirebiliriz.

Gerekirse mekan belirteçleri de değişmelidir. En sık kullanılanı, "here" yerine "there" kullanılır.

She said "I am ill today."

She said she was ill that day.

 

His mother said: "He went to school an hour ago."

His mother said that he had gone to school an hour before.

 

Jill said "He is leaving now."

Jill said he was leaving then.

 

 

 

Hatta mantık dahilinde, kullanılan fiili bile değiştirebiliriz.

My boss asked "Will you be coming to work tomorrow?"

My boss asked if I was going to work the next day.

 

My dad asked her "Which city are you going to be living in?"

My dad asked her which city she was going to be living in.

 

The driver said "I think that I will not be able to get you to your meeting on time."

The driver said he thought that he would not be able to get me to my meeting on time.

 

The reporter asked "Do you believe in what you are saying?"

The reporter asked whether he/she believed what he/she was saying.

 

The tourist asked "How can I get to the museum"

The tourist asked how he/she could get to the museum.

 

The man answered "Turn right after the post office"

The man told the tourist to turn right after the post office.

 

 

 

Şu ana kadar verdiğimiz hemen her örnekte "say" fiilini kullanarak aktarım yaptık. Say haricinde birçok farklı fiil ile de aktarım yapabiliriz. Farklı aktarım fiilleri kullanmak, anlamı kuvvetlendireceği gibi, anlatımı da zengin kılacaktır.

 

En sık kullandığımız bir diğer aktarım fiili "tell" dir. Say fiili ile, sadece söyleyeni belirtiriz. Tell kelimesi, "say" den farklı olarak iki nesne alır. Yani söyleyen ve söylenen kişileri belirtebiliriz.

The teacher told Tracy that she should study more.

I told you that he was sick.

The man told Sue that he is her father!

 

 

 

Soruları aktarmak için "ask" fiilini yüklem olarak kullanırız. Ask fiilinden sonra da object olarak bir şahıs belirtilebilir. Soruları aktarırken, yine noun clause için yaptığımız gibi, öğe sıralamasını normale çeviririz. (yardımcı fiil kaldırılır, tense ekleri yükleme uygulanır.)

My father asked "What's the time?"
My father asked (me) what the time was.

 

The mother asked her daughter "Is it raining outside?"

The mother asked her daughter if it was raining outside.

 

 

 

Ayrıca, "want to know", "inquire", "wonder" gibi farklı aktarım kelimeleri ile de soru aktarımı yapılabilir.

The mother inquired if it was raining outside.

The mother inquired whether or not it was raining outside.

The mother wanted to know if it was raining outside or not.

The mother wondered if it was raining outside or not.

 

 

 

Cevap aktarmak için de "answer" veya "reply" fiillerinden yararlanabiliriz.

 The girl said "No, it isn't raining."

The girl answered it wasn't raining.

The girl replied it wasn't raining.

 

 

 

Reported speech ile kullanabileceğimiz bazı fiiller listededir. Her birinin, cümleye kattığı ince anlam farklılıkları var. Ayrıca kullanımlarında da küçük farklılıklar olabiliyor. İngilizcemizi kullandıkça, bu kelimelere aşinalık kazanacağız.

 

accuse
apologise
complain
inform
predict
state
admit
ask
decide
insist
promise
suggest
advise
beg
demand
inquire
realize
think
allege
boast
deny
invite
remark
want
agree
claim
explain
offer
remember
warn
announce
comment
imply
order
reply
wonder
 

 

 

  

Ayrıca, cümlelerimizi zenginleştirmek için, aktarım yaparken daha önce işlediğimiz passive, gerund-infinitive gibi konulardan da faydalanabiliriz. Unutmayalım ki, önemli olan birebir yazmak değil, fikrin doğru aktarılmasıdır. En kolay uygulayabileceğimiz, gerund ve infinitive kullanımıdır. Çünkü "reporting verb" yükleminden başka, ikinci bir fiil daha kullanacağız. Şu örnekleri biraz "renklendirelim".
The policeman turned to the suspect and said "You stole that car!"
The policeman told the suspect that he had stolen the car.
The policeman accused the suspect of stealing the car.
 
The suspect said "Yes! I admit. I have stolen it."
The suspect admitted that he had stolen the car.
The suspect admitted having stolen the car.
 
The lawyer said "You should return the car."
The lawyer advised that the man should return the car.
The lawyer advised the man to return the car.
 
The suspect said. "OK, I will return the car."
The suspect agreed that he should return the car.
The suspect agreed to return the car.
 
The police said "The suspect will return the car"
The police announced that the car would be returned.
 
The suspect said "I am really sorry for stealing the car. Please forgive me! I don't want to go to jail!"

 

The suspect apologised for having stolen the car. Then, he begged to be forgiven.
passive

The suspect stated that he didn't want to go to jail.
 
One of the policeman said "I solved this case alone. Because I am the best policeman in this city."
One of the policeman claimed that he solved the case alone. He also boasted about being the best policeman in that city.
One of the policeman claimed to have solved the case alone. He also boasted about how he was the best policeman in that city.
 
The others said "It was your job, and you did it. That doesn't make you the best policeman"
The others commented that it was his job so he had done it. The others denied his claims of being the best policeman in that city.
 
That policeman then said "Nobody appreciates my hard work!"
That policeman complained about not being appreciated.
That policeman claimed that nobody appreciated his hard work.
 
I said to myself "I should end this story here."
I decided to end that story there.
 
However, the readers said "We want to hear the rest of the story."
The readers stated that they wanted to hear the rest of the story.
The readers demanded to hear the rest of the story.
 
The suspect was taken to court. He said to the judge "I didn't steal that car!"

In the court, the suspect denied having stolen the car.
passive

 
The policeman said "This suspect admitted stealing the car in the police headquarters."
The policeman explained that the suspect had admitted stealing the car in the police headquarters.
 
The suspect then said "I was 'scared' in the headquarters."

The suspect claimed that he was scared in the headquarters.
Burada had been kullanırsak, bir süre sonra korkusunun geçtiği gibi bir mana çıkar.

The suspect implied that he had been treated badly in the headquarters.
 
Of course, the policemen said "This is not true, he is lying. We have cameras in the office that record all day."
The policeman informed the judge that the man was lying and that they have cameras in the office that record all day.
The policeman informed the judge about having cameras in the office that record all day.
 
The suspect said "I am telling the truth! I was treated badly!"
The suspect insisted that he was telling the truth and he had been treated badly.

The suspect insisted on being treated badly.
"The suspect insisted on being telling the truth" gramer olarak doğru görünse de, kulağa hoş gelmiyor.

 
 
The judge asked "Can we see that camera footage?"
The judge inquired to see the camera footage.
The judge asked for the camera footage.
 
The police chief told the other policemen "Bring the footage to the courtroom."
The police chief ordered the other policeman to bring the footage to the courtroom.
 
The police called the man whose car was stolen and said "Would you please come to the trial?"
The police called the man whose car was stolen and asked if he would come to the trial.
The policeman invited the man whose car was stolen to come to trial.
 
The man said "OK, I promise, I will come"
The man promised that he would come.
The man promised that to come.
 
The man thought to himself "I would be able to get a permission from work that day."
The man thought that he would be able to get a permission from work that day.
The man predicted being able to get permission from work that day.
 
The day before the trial, he was too busy and he said to himself "I am too busy. I probably will not be able to go."
The man realised that he was too busy and he probably would not be able to go.
 
He called the policeman and said "May I come to the following trial?"
The man suggested the policeman to go to the following trial.
The man suggested coming to the following trial.
 
The policeman replied him "It's OK, you do not have to come."
The policeman stated that he did not have to go.

 

 

 

Reported speech ile, başkasının söylediği bir cümleyi kendi kelimelerimizle ifade etmiş oluruz. Kendi ifademiz olunca, kurallara bağlı kalmaktansa, mantık dahilinde biraz da yorum katabiliyoruz. Burada verdiğimiz kurallar bile olağan dışı durumlarda eğer mantığa ters ise, uygulanmaz.

 

Mesela, if clause, wish clause gibi bir çok özel kullanımda, farklı tenseler farklı anlamlar katar. Böyle durumlarda, reported speech için tense'i değiştirirsek, anlamda bozulma olacaktır. Dolayısıyla, cümlenin tense'ini korumak, daha mantıklı ve doğru olacaktır.

 

 

Cümlenin simple past ile sunulduğu bazı durumlarda, normalde yaptığımız gibi, tense'i bir geri alırsak, anlam bozulabilir. Bu sebeple tense korunmalıdır.

He said: "I was scared."

He said that he was scared.

He said that he had been scared.
Eğer tense'i değiştirirsek, orijinal cümlede olmayan "sanki bahsedilen eylemin bir süre sonra son bulduğu" gibi bir mana oluşuyor. Bu nedenle, simple past tense'in korunması daha doğrudur.

 

 

 

Past continuous tense'i de, bazı durumlarda korumak daha doğru olacaktır.

Son Gelen Soru

Soruyu aktarma eğer direct speech yaparsak yani cümleyi aynen aktarırsak he asked "will you come today?" olmalıdır. ancak indirect speech kullanırsak he asked me if/whether I would come. Cevabı ve devamı için tıklayın >>