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Zaman İfadeleri / Expressions of Time

Burada inceleyeceğimiz çoğu ifadeyi daha önce kullandık. Önceki kullanımlarımızda genelde "phrase" halindeydiler. İngilizce dilbilgisinde bu ifadeler clause olarak da kullanılırlar.
I have been studying since this morning.
Adverbial phrase
I have been studying since I got up this morning.
Adverbial clause

 

 
 

before, after

Before we entered the room, he saw us.

They had been watching a movie before we arrived.

After we left the house, my telephone rang.

After he finished school, he began to work as a cook.

I will leave after we finish this job.

 

Not: afterwards sözcüğü ile adverbial clause oluşturulamaz, sadece adverb olarak kullanılabilir.
The movie ended. I saw her afterwards.  (after that)

 

 

 

when

When I grow up, I want to be just like my father.

I will inform him about the situation when I meet him tomorrow.
Adverbial clause içindeki gelecek ifadelerini future tense ile değil, present tense ile kurarız.
"When" sözcüğünü belirttiğimiz vakitte yaşanan bir andan bahsetmek için kullanırız. Bir süreklilik ifade etmez.

 

 

 

while, as

"While" ifadesi "when"den farklı olarak, bir süreklilik de ifade eder.

While the teacher was explaining "Subordinating Conjunctions", I fell asleep.

We were getting ready to leave while he was enjoying the sunset.

As he was enjoying the sunset, we were getting ready to leave.

 

 

 

since

"Since", geçmişteki olaydan itibaren geçen süreyi ifade eder. Bu anlamı nedeniyle de hemen hemen her zaman perfect tenseler ile kullanılır.

You should have been looking for this book since it was lost.

The dog has been barking non-stop since we tied him in the backyard.

Since I moved here 20 years ago, I have been living here.

 

 

 

by the time

"By the time", "bahsedilen eylem tamamlandığı anda" manasını sağlar.

By the time the fire fighters arrived, the building had already collapsed.

I will have already completed my homework by the time you set the table.

 

 

 

till, until

"Till" informal bir ifade olup, yazıda pek kullanılmaz. "bahsedilen zamana kadar" manasındadır. Bu sebeple "until" daha sık tercih edilir.

You shouldn't leave until we arrive.

I'll be staying in bed till I get better.

 

 

 

once, as soon as

Bu iki ifade de, "hemen", "bahsedilen vakitten hemen sonra", "en kısa zamanda" anlamlarını katar.

Once we left town, we realised we forgot our luggage.

I will call you back as soon as I get a chance.

 

 

 

as long as

"As long as", cümleye "olmaya devam ettikçe", "sürdükçe", "sonuna kadar" gibi bir mana da katar:

Arkadaş olmaya devam ettikçe, birbirimize yardım etmeliyiz.

We should help each other as long as we are friends.

 

 

 

whenever, every time

Her seferinde manasını katan bu ifadeler, geniş zamanla kullanılmalıdır.

Whenever I hear this song, I feel like dancing.

She starts crying every time she hears a slightly emotional story.

 

 

 

the (first, last) time

The first time I got a very bad mark, I started to cry.

Afterwards, I got used to it so much that the last time I got a bad mark, I didn't even feel surprised.

He was getting ready to leave for work the last time I talked to him.

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